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Beberapa strategi untuk merancang arsitektur

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Desain untuk kebutuhan manusia .

Pertimbangkan tempat proyeknya, apakah desain Anda akan melengkapi lingkungannya?
Rancang ruang yang meningkatkan pengalaman hidup.

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Architecture is a creative profession. Architects use their creative skills to design solutions from all things building to sculpture to furniture to jewelry and much more. Develop your creativity by practicing being creative.

An example of being creative is learning how to draw your ideas. Describe your ideas and drawings to other people, get their feedback and then modifying your design based on their comments, this is the iterative design process. 

All architecture drawings are combinations of lines, circles, squares, rectangles and other geometric shapes.

Be confident drawing basic geometric shapes. The more confident you are drawing, the easier it is to draw your ideasPractice your drawing skills with this line drawing activity.

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Most architects draw their ideas quickly and write their design thoughts in their architects sketch book.

You can also draw your ideas on a tablet or phone using Procreate, Concepts or Morpholio which are the 3 main digital drawing apps architects use. 

There are many other digital drawing applications to visualise your ideas on the architect.school/draw page.

Semua gambar arsitektur merupakan kombinasi garis, lingkaran, kotak, persegi panjang dan bentuk geometris lainnya.

Gunakan teknik menggambar cepat ini.

  • Lipat selembar kertas A4 menjadi 4.

  • Buatlah coretan sketsa ide Anda selama 2 menit.

  • Buatlah gambar denah, ketinggian, bagian & perspektif selama 2 menit untuk memformalkan ide Anda.

Video 'Gambar cepat ide Anda selama 2 menit' ini menampilkan gambar untuk Proyek Desain Pod 1 jam.

This is a 2 minute drawing of the Box House design, the lines are not perfectly straight but it conveys the design concept. Don't get too hung up about the straightness of your lines when drawing your ideas. The busa wood model I made of the drawing took 4 hours to make. 

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Sir Norman Foster is the founder of Foster + Partners, his right-hand-man is Ken Shuttleworth, also known as Ken the Pen, is a "quickest-thinking designer", rumour has it that he sketched out the unprecedented form of London's City Hall in about 10 seconds. "I find sketching and designing quite easy, It's something that comes quite naturally, at college they called me Ken the Pen because I drew twice as fast as anyone else."

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Untuk siapa Anda mendesain, apa kebutuhan mereka?
Tentang apa proyek ini?
Peluang apa saja yang perlu Anda pertimbangkan?
Ringkasan proyek menjelaskan ekspektasi yang jelas termasuk jadwal, pencapaian utama, dan sumber daya untuk menyelesaikan proyek

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Apa kata kunci utama proyek ini?
Kata kunci proyek dapat menginspirasi pemikiran kreatif untuk mengeksplorasi ide desain.
Visualisasikan kata kunci dengan gambar untuk memulai proses perancangan proyek.

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Bagaimana berpikir seperti seorang Arsitek - video oleh Arsitek Barry Berkus .

Arsitek Barry Berkus menjelaskan 'bagaimana + mengapa' dalam mendesain sebuah rumah.

DESAIN SINGKAT : Nikmati pemandangan, pemandangan pantai & laut, bawa pulang keluarga besar, tempat yang juga privat bagi mereka.


GAMBAR : " Saat Anda membuat sketsa, Anda menggambar diagram, diagram tersebut menjadi arsitektur " + " Desain dengan diagram gelembung "


PERANCANGAN : " Ini adalah latihan berpikir dengan tangan & pikiran - semuanya dimulai dengan diagram pola " + " Gagasan tentang di mana segala sesuatu berada & bagaimana mereka saling berhubungan, kedekatan ruangan & peluang matahari & pemandangan dari situs "
MATAHARI : Matahari pagi dari timur, matahari sore dari barat. " Selalu bayangkan dapur menikmati cahaya Timur, sinar matahari adalah hal yang indah untuk mendapatkan kehangatan sinar matahari pagi & sore di ruang tamu "


ANGIN : Halaman dalam melindungi dari angin, melindungi orang-orang di sekitar perapian. Desain halaman dalam berasal dari zaman Romawi.


RINGKASAN : " Penghargaan terbesar yang dapat diperoleh seorang arsitek adalah kliennya yang bahagia, sebuah bangunan dan tempat yang bagus yang dapat mereka datangi kembali dan kunjungi karena makna dari apa yang mereka desain dan kekuatan arsitekturnya "

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Apa referensi budaya yang berhubungan dengan proyek Anda?

Pelajari prinsip-prinsip 'desain bikultural'. Baca tentang desain bikultural di Jasmax dan Architectus .

 
Contoh ini adalah bagaimana budaya Maori menginspirasi desain pemenang penghargaan Auckland City Rail Link

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Contextualism is an architectural theory of design that relates to being inspired by the literal and abstract characteristics of the environment of a project. 

For example; when I was designing SnakeTower located in a wildlife sanctuary in Africa, one of the site contexts I was inspired by was the gradient patterns of the skin of the local elephants. By using a closeup photo of an elephants head, reflection duplicated and focusing on the trunk detail I was able to draw a pattern detail to use in the project design that relates to the site context.    

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Gambar apa yang berhubungan dengan proyek Anda?
Buat papan inspirasi dengan semua gambar yang menggambarkan ide proyek Anda secara visual
Kadang-kadang disebut sebagai papan desain atau papan suasana hati

Gambar ini berkaitan dengan proyek SnakeTower.

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Era desain apa yang menginspirasi Anda?

Pelajari tentang arsitektur sejarah dan kontemporer untuk menginformasikan apresiasi Anda terhadap desain.

Simak kumpulan arsitektur dunia kontemporer tahun 2016 , 2017 , 2018 , 2019 , 2020, 2021 , 2022 , 2023 .

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' Iteratif ' berarti melakukan sesuatu lagi dan lagi, biasanya untuk memperbaikinya.


Tunjukkan peningkatan berulang pada proyek Anda selama proses desain dan uji ide Anda dengan terus mendapatkan umpan balik dari orang lain untuk meningkatkan desain proyek.

Informasi lebih lanjut tentang desain berulang .


Contoh ini menunjukkan desain roda yang berulang-ulang, mulai dari batu, kayu, karet, cetakan 3D, hingga ban tanpa udara.

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Make physical models of your designs throughout the design process. 

Architects have been making physical models of their architecture for hundreds of years.  

This is a Sir Christopher Wren drawing for the dome design of St Paul's Cathedral, 1673-1752 and the St Paul's Cathedral wooden model, 1673.

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At the start of a design project make quick paper or cardboard models of your ideas based on your design drawings. Dont spend more than an hour making these models and use tape to stick the paper/card together, glue takes to long to set, unless you use a hot glue gun. This example is a 2D triangle drawing of a design for Snake Tower I drew on A4 paper then scrunched up to make a 3D model of tower shape ideas.

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This is one of my Snake Tower design drawings and a 3D model I made in 1 hour with matchsticks and a hot glue gun.      

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This foam board, bulsa wood and steel mesh model took 8 hours to make of Maya House I designed. There are heaps of other materials you can make models with. Check out examples on Pinterest.

These photos of  models are made by Hong Kong University students shown at the end of year show 2023

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Visualise your design ideas in 3 dimensions using software applications to digitally 3d model your designs. 

There are many 3D software's that architects use which are listed on the architect.school/architect-software page.

 

Some architects use Rhino 3D to model their designs, it lets you model complex parametric shapes

Major international architectural firms like ZHA use Maya to 3D model their designs

Most architectural practices use SketchUp so I recommend you get very good at using it. You can use basic SketchUp for free on their online in-browser version or download it to your computer which offers more features.

  

This image is by one of my students who used SketchUp to 3D model his project. 

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During the 3D modeling process you will need to render test images of your design.

 

Rendering is the process of using a 3D model (SketchUp, Rhino etc) of architecture and creating stylised or photorealistic digital images or videos using rendering software. Sometimes called 'architectural rendering' or 'architectural visualization' or 'archviz'.  

You need to be good at texturing your 3D models and lighting. You need a decent computer with heaps of RAM and a quality graphics card to render images of your scenes which can take hours per image.

These are the 8 main rendering softwares that architects use. 

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Design using Virtual Reality or Augmented Reality digital technology. 

Virtual Reality technology started in 1838 by Sir Charles Wheatstone. In 1935 Stanley Weinbaum's fictional 'Pygmalions Spectacles' described VR goggles that offered movies with sight, sound, taste, smell and touch.   

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In 1968 the first VR+AR headset with cameras connected to a computer was called The Sword of Damocles

Ivan Sutherland created the first CAD drawing software. Watch this video.

Read about the advancement of VR+ AR headset technology in video games, military, NASA, gloves etc. 

By 2015 VR technology started to become available to the general public with headsets from Oculus, Sony, Samsung, HTC, Google. This is when architects started using these consumer headsets for architecture.

There are now heaps of options for for visualising architecture in VR + AR, especially using game engines like Unreal and Twinmotion. Buy a headset and give it a go!  Watch the AR + VR videos on YouTube 

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The public release of Generative AI applications in 2022 ment Artificial Intelligence technology enabled computers to create photorealistic or stylized images of architecture designs based on text prompts.

There are many text-to-image Generative AI applications, the main ones are Dall-E2 and Craiyon by OpenAi (creator of ChatGPT),  Midjourney, Stable Diffusion, Neural Blender, Starryai, and Google Imagen.

 

Image-to-3D like Nvidia's NGP Instant NeRF and text-to-video are the next evolution of Generative AI imagery that architects can use in the architectural design process.

Tim Fu is one of the worlds most prominent architects using AI to design architecture.

Read more about architecture AI architect.school/ai

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What are the important detailed designs of your project that will define your project?

 

For example, what is the stair design of your project? 

These annotated photos show various designs.

 

Here are more stair designs on Pinterest

 

Read about how Apple patented their curved glass stair design.     

Troy Donovan is an expert architect detailed designer, his Instagram is the _donnies.  

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Proses perancangan arsitektur berdasarkan piramida Teori Taksonomi Blooms

 

Pengetahuan : mengamati seni dan ilmu arsitektur, memahami gagasan besar, menguasai materi pelajaran

Memahami : mendeskripsikan dan menjelaskan arsitektur menggunakan gambar, menerjemahkan pengetahuan ke dalam konteks baru, memprediksi konsekuensi

Terapkan : menggunakan informasi, metode, konsep dan teori dalam situasi baru, memecahkan masalah menggunakan keterampilan dan pengetahuan

Menganalisis : menunjukkan hubungan, memprediksi dan menarik kesimpulan

Mengevaluasi : membandingkan dan membedakan ide-ide, menilai nilai teori, membuat pilihan berdasarkan argumen yang masuk akal, mengenali subjektivitas

Buat : mengembangkan proses desain menggunakan pengalaman yang dipelajari dari pengetahuan tahap pertama

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If you have never designed architecture before or want to practice the experience of being an architect and the process of design then try these example projects.

architect.school/projects

 

 

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If you want further advice on design then check out the advice and resources that architects offer on YouTube.

www.youtube.com/architects-design-advice 

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